Friday, 26 July 2013

Accessing Organizational Information - Data Warehouse

-> Data warehouse - a logical collection of information - gathered from many different operational databases - that supports business analysis activities and decision-making tasks.

The PURPOSE of data warehouse:
-> to combined information throughout an organization into a single repository for decision making purpose - data warehouse support only analytical processing.

Data Warehouse Model

Extraction, Transformation, and Loading (ETL)
-> a process that extracts information from internal and external databases,  transform s the information using a common set of enterprise definitions, and loads the information into a data warehouse.

Data Mart : contains a subset of data warehouse information.

Multimedia Analysis and Data Mining
-> Relational Database contain information in a series of two-dimensional tables.
-> In data warehouse and data mart, information is multidimensional,  it contains layers of column and rows.
-> Cube : common term for the representation of multidimensional information. 
-> Once a cube of information is created, users can begin to slice and dice the cube to drill down into the information. 
-> Users can analyse ways and with number of different dimensional.  
-> Data Mining : the process of analyzing data to extract information not offered by the row data alone. Also known as "knowledge discovery".
-> To perform data mining users need data-mining tools: uses a variety of techniques to find patterns and relationship in large volumes of information. 

Information Cleansing or Scrubbing
-> Its a process that weeds out the fixes or discard,  inconsistent,  incorrect,  or incomplete information. 
-> Occur during ETL process and second on the information once if is in the data warehouse. 

Business Intelligent
-> Refers to application and technologies that are used to gather, provide access, analyse data, and information to support decision making effort.
->  These systems will be illustrate business intelligence in the areas of customer profiling,  customer support,  market research,  market segmentation,  product profitability,  statical analysis, and invrntory and distribution analysis to name a few.

Saturday, 20 July 2013

Storing Organization Information

Relational Database Fundamental

Database models include :
  • Hierarchical database model - information is organized into a tree-like structure (using parent/child relationships) in such a way that it cannot have too relationships. 
  • Network database model - a flexible way of representing objects and their relationships
  • Relational database model - stores information in the form of logically related two-dimensional tables

Entity and Attribute

  • Entity - A person , place, thing, transaction, or event about which information is stored.
  • Attributes (field, columns) - characteristics or properties of an entity class.
Keys and Relationships

Primary keys and foreign keys identify the various entity classes (tables) in the database
  • Primary key - a field (or group of fields) that uniquely identifys a given entity in a table.
  • Foreign key - a primary of one table that appears an attribute in another table and acts to provide a logical relationship among the two tables.
Relational Database Advantages

Database advantages from a business perspective include :
  • Increased flexibility
  • Increased scalability and performance
  • Reduced information integrity (quality)
  • Increased information redundancy
  • Increased information security
Increased flexibility

A well-designed database should:
  • Handle changes quickly and easily
  • Provide users with different views
  • Have only physical view - deals with the physical storage of information on a storage device
  • Have multiple logical view

Increased Scalability and Performance

A database must scale to meet increased demand, while maintaining acceptable performance levels.
  • Scalability : refers to how well a system can adapt tp increased demands
  • Performance : measures how quickly a system performs a certain process or transaction 

Reduced Information Redundancy

  • Databases reduce information redundancy - The duplication of information or storing the same information in the multiple places.
  • Inconsistency is one of the primary problems with redundant information.
Increased Information Integrity (Quality)

  • Information integrity : measures the quality of information
  • Integrity constraint : rules that help ensure the quality of information

Friday, 12 July 2013

Valuing Organizational Information

Organizational Information

Information is everywhere in an organization. When addressing a significant business issue, employees must be able to obtain and analyze all the relevant information so they can make the best decision possble. Organizational information comes at different levels and in different formats and "granularities". Information granularities refers to the extent of detail within the information (fine and detailed or coarse and abstract).

The Value of Transactional and Analytical Information

  • Transactional information encompasses all of the information contained within a single business process or unit of work, and its primary purpose is to support the performing of daily operational tasks. Example: withdrawing cash from an ATM, making an airline reservation or purchasing stocks.

  • Analytical information encompasses all organization information, and its primary purpose is to support the performing of managerial analysis tasks. It also includes transactional infromation along with other information such as market and industry information. Example: trends, sales and product.

Organization Structures That Support Strategic Initiative

IT Roles and Resposibility

  • Chief Information Officer (CIO) :
             1. Overseeing all uses of information technology
             2. Ensuring the strategic alignment of IT with the business goals and objective.
             3. Manager :- ensure the delivery of all IT projects, on time and within budget.
             4. Leader :- ensure the strategic vision of IT is in line with the strategic vision of the organization.
             5. Communicator :- advocate and communicate the IT strategic by building and maintaining strong                    executive relationship.

  • Chief Technology Officer (CTO) : Responsible for ensuring the throughput ,speed, accuracy, availability and reliability of an organization information technology. 

  • Chief Security Officer (CSO) : Responsible for ensuring the security of IT systems and developing strategies and IT safeguards against attack from hackers and viruses.

  • Chief Privacy Officer (CPO) : Responsible for ensuring the ethical and legal use information within an organization.

  • Chief Knowledge Officer (CKO) : Responsible for collecting, maintaining, and distributing the organization's knowledge.

Organization Fundamentals - Ethics and Security

  • Ethics : The principle and standards that guide our behaviour toward other people. 

  • Security - How Much Will Downtime Cost Your Business : According to Gartner Group , on average, enterprise lose $108,000 of revenue every hour their IT infrastructure is down. The sources of unplanned downtime like bomb threat, hacker, snowstorm, burst pipe, hail, ice storm, sabotage, fire and etc. 

Tuesday, 9 July 2013

Strategic Initiatives for Implementing Competitive Advantages

Supply Chain Management (SCM)
Involve the management of information flows between and among stages in a supply chain to maximize total supply chain effectiveness and profitability. The 4 basic component of SCM :-

  • Supply chain strategy
  • Supply chain partners
  • Supply chain operation
  • Supply chain logistics

Customer Relationship Management (CRM)
Involves managing all aspect of a customers relationship with an organization to increase customer loyalty and retention and an organization profitability.

Business Process Reengineering (BPR)
Is the analysis and redesign of workflow within and between enterprises. The purpose of BPR is to make all business process the best-in-class.

Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)
Intergrates all department and functions throughout an organization into a single IT system (or intergrated set of IT system) so that employees can make decisions by viewing enterprisewide information on all business operation.

Measuring the Success of Strategic Initiatives

Measuring Information Technologies Success

  • Key performance indicator :- measure that are tied to business drivers
  • Metrics are detailed measured that feed KPIs
  • Performance metrics fall into the nebolous area of business intelligence that is neither technology, nor business centered, but requieres input from both IT and business professionals.

Efficiency and Effectiveness

  • Efficiency IT metric :- focuses on the extent to which an organization is using its resources in a optimal   way. It also measure the performance of the IT system itself including throughtput, speed, and availability - doing things right
  • Effectiveness IT metric :- measure the impact IT has on business processes and activities including customer satisfaction, conversion rates, and sell-through increase - doing the right things.

Benchmarking - baseline metrics

  • Regardless of what is measured, how it is measured and whether it is for the sake of efficiency or effectiveness, there must be benchmarks - baseline values the system seek to attain.
  • Benchmarking - a process of continuously measuring system results, comparing those results to optimal system performance benchmark values, and identifying steps and procedures to improve system performance.

Thursday, 4 July 2013

Competitive Advantage

What is Competitive Advantage (CA) ?

  • A product or service that an organization's customers place a great value on the similar offering from a competitor.
  • Unfortunately, CA is temporary because competitors keep duplicate the strategy.
  • Then, the company should start the new competitive advantage.

The Five Forces Model

  1. The buyer power
  2. Supplier power
  3. Threat of substitute products or services
  4. Threat of new entrants
  5. Rivalry among existing companies

The Three Generics Strategies

Monday, 1 July 2013

Business Driven Technology

Today, information technology (IT) become important in our daily life. We used IT everyday and everywhere. So..when we talk about IT, do you know what IT really mean? For those who didn't know about IT, don't worry because now I'm going to tell you what is IT is all about. ehem hem.. :D

IT is a field concerned with the use of technology in managing and processing information. Today, the term information technology has ballooned to encompass many aspects of computing and technology, and the term is more recognizable than ever. The IT umbrella can be quite large, covering many fields that deal with the use of electronic and computers and computer software to convert, store, protect, process, transmit, and retrieve information securely.

Management information systems (MIS) is a business function and academic discipline covering the application of people, technologis, and procedures to solve business problem. The function is similar to accounting, finance, operation, and human resources. When beginning to learn about IT, it is important to understand :- Data, information and business intelligence (BI) IT resouces, and IT cultures.

salam perkenalan :D

Asalamualaikum ... 
hye ..

I'm farrah.. new blogger here. mintak tunjuk ajar ye dari kawan2 yg pro psl blog2 ni eh. sy budak baru belajar. kalau salah tolong tunjukkan. heee :D ececeh.